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Full text of "Charter, ordinances, and by-laws of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia : as amended June 2nd, 1886"

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NATIONAL LI8RARY OF MEDICINE 




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NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE NATION: 





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CHARTER 



ORDINANCES AND BY-LAWS 



COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS 



PHILADELPHIA, 



As Amended June 2nd, 188G. 



NON SIEI SED TOT I. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

BUKK & McFETKIDGE, PKINTEES. 
1880. 



AUG 3 



1950 



NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



The College was instituted in January, 1787, and incorporated 
in March, 1789 ; the Ordinances and By-Laws were revised and 
finally adopted July, 1840 ; since which time various additions 
and amendments have been made to them, all of which are in- 
corporated in the present revised edition. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 



Charter 5 

Ordinances and By-Laws. 

Chap. I. Members and Membership . . . .10 

II. Officers of the College and their Duties . 15 

III. The Council 19 

IV. Meetings 22 

V. Standing Committees 24 

VI. Committee of Publication . . . .24 

VII. Library Committee 25 

VIII. Rules for Government of Library . . 26 

IX. Committee on the Mutter Museum . . 28 

X. Hall Committee 32 

XI. Committee on the Directory for Nurses . 33 

XII. Committee on Finance 33 

XIII. William F. Jenks Prize Committee . . 34 

XIV. Committee on Entertainments . . .34 
XV. Neglect of Duty 35 

XVI. Special Committees 35 

XVII. Rules of Order 36 

XVIII. Code of Medical Ethics 39 

XIX. Revision and Enactment of Ordinances and 

By-Laws 62 

List op Presidents 64 

Officers and Standing Committees for 1886 . . 65 
List of Fellows, Associate Fellows and Corres- 
ponding Members 66 



CHARTER. 



An Act for the Incorporation of the College 
of Physicians of Philadelphia. 

1. Whereas, the Phsyicians of Philadelphia, in- 
fluenced by a conviction of the many advantages 
which have arisen from literary institutions, have 
associated themselves under the name and title of 
The College of Physicians of Philadelphia : 

2. And whereas, the objects of this College are to 
advance the science of medicine, and thereby to 
lessen human misery, by investigating the diseases 
and remedies which are peculiar to this country; by 
observing the effect of different seasons, climates, 
and situations upon the human body; by recording 
the changes which are produced in disease by the 
progress of agriculture, arts, population, and man- 
ners; by searching for medicines in the American 
Avoods, waters, and in the bowels of the earth ; by 
enlarging the avenues to knowledge from the dis- 
coveries and publications of foreign countries; and 
by cultivating order and uniformity in the practice 
of physic : 

3. And whereas, the said College of Physicians 
have prayed us, the Representatives of the Freemen 



6 



of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, that they 
may he created a body politic and corporate, for- 
ever, with such powers, privileges, and immunities 
as may best answer the laudable purposes which 
the members thereof have in view ; wherefore, to 
assist and encourage the said College of Physi- 
cians, in the prosecution and advancement of 
useful knowledge for the benefit of their country 
and of mankind, 

4. Be it enacted, and it is hereby enacted, by the 
Representatives of the Freemen of the Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania, in General Assembly met, and by the 
authority of the same, That the members of the said 
College of Physicians, that is to say, John Redman, 
John Jones, William Shippen, Jun., Adam Kuhn, 
John Morgan, Benjamin Rush, Samuel Dufrield, 
Gerardus .Clarkson, George Glentworth, Thomas 
Parke, James Hutchinson, Robert Harris, John 
Carson, Benjamin Dufheld, William W. Smith, 
John Foulke, Samuel Powcl Grifritts, William 
Clarkson, William Currie, Benjamin Say, Andrew 
Ross, John Morris, Nathan Dorsey, James Cunn- 
ingham, Caspar Wistar, Jun., Michael Leib, and 
John H. Gibbons, be, and the same persons are, 
and shall be, a body corporate and politic in deed 
and in name, by the name and style of " The 
College of Physicians of Philadelphia," and 
by the same name, they and their successors are 
hereby constituted and confirmed one body cor- 
porate and politic in law, to have perpetual suc- 
cession, and to be able and capable to have, hold 



7 



and enjoy any goods and chattels, lands, tenements, 
rents, hereditaments, gifts, and bequests, of what 
nature soever, in fee simple, or for term of years, 
life or lives, or otherwise; and also to grant, sell, 
alien, assign, or let the same lands, tenements, 
and premises, according to the nature of the 
respective grants and bequests made to the said 
corporation, and of the estate of the said corpora- 
tion therein ; provided, that the amount of the 
clear yearly value of such real estate exceed not 
the sum of five hundred pounds, lawful money of 
this commonwealth. 

5. The said corporation be, and shall be forever 
hereafter, able and capable in law, to sue and be 
sued, plead and be impleaded, answer and lie an- 
swered unto, defend and be defended, in all or any 
courts of justice and other places, in all manner 
of suits, actions, complaints, pleas, causes, and 
matters of what nature or kind soever; and that 
it shall and may be lawful to and for the said 
corporation, forever hereafter, to have and use a 
common seal, and the same seal, at the will and 
pleasure of the said corporation, to break, change, 
alter, and renew. 

6. For the well ordering of the said corporation 
and its affairs, there shall be, at all times here- 
after, the following officers of the same ; that is 
to say, one President, one Vice-President, four 
Censors, a Secretary, and a Treasurer, who shall 
be chosen, annually, from amongst the Fellows of 
the said College of Physicians, on the first Tuesday 



8 



in the month of July for ever hereafter*- or within 
one calendar "month after the same day, in any 
year ; and that John Redman be the present Presi- 
dent of the said College; John Jones, the present 
Vice-President; William Shippen, Jnn., Adam 
Kuhn, Benjamin Rush, and Samuel Duffield, the 
present Censors; Samuel Powel Griffitts, the 
present Secretary ; and Gerardus Clarkson, the 
present Treasurer of the said College ; and shall 
be and remain the President, Vice-President, 
Censors, Secretary, and Treasurer, respectively, 
of the said College, until they be superseded by a 
new election to be made by the Fellows of the said 
College as aforesaid; and all vacancies by death, 
resignation, or otherwise, which shall at any time 
hereafter happen in any of the said offices, may 
be filled by a special election, to be holden so often 
as occasion shall require. 

7. The authorities and duties of the officers of 
the said corporation who are hereinbefore men- 
tioned, and of any others which the said corpora- 
tion shall see fit to appoint, the times of meeting 
of the said corporation, the admission of members, 
and the other concerns of the said corporation, 
shall be regulated by the By-laws and Ordinances 
of the said corporation, heretofore made or to be 
made, touching the premises. 

8. Provided always, That no By-laws nor Ordi- 
nances of the said corporation, hereafter made, 

* By a decree of the Court of Common Pleas, Dee. 3d 1858 
the clause in Italics was altered to read as follows : Wednesday 
in the month of January next, and annually thereafter. 



9 



shall be binding upon the officers or members 
thereof, unless the same shall be proposed at one 
regular meeting of the said corporation, and enacted 
and received at another, after the intervention of 
at least thirty days. And that no sale, or aliena- 
tion, or lease for above three years, of any part of 
the real estate of the said corporation, shall be 
valid, unless the terms and nature of such sale or 
lease be proposed at a previous meeting of the said 
corporation. 

Signed by order of the House, 

Richard Peters, Speaker. 

Enacted into a law, at Philadelphia, on Thurs- 
day, the twenty-sixth day of March, in the year of 
our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
nine. 

Peter Zaciiary Lloyd, 
Clerk of the General Assembly. 



1* 



ORDINANCES AND BY-LAWS. 



CHAPTER I. 

MEMBERS AND MEMBERSHIP. 

1. The College shall consist of Fellows, Asso- 
ciate Fellows, and Corresponding Members. 

2. The Fellows shall be physicians, of good 
character and professional standing, residing 
within the city of Philadelphia, or within thirty 
miles thereof, in the State of Pennsylvania, over 
twenty-four years of age, and graduates of at least 
five years' standing. 

3. The Associate Fellows shall be distinguished 
foreign or American physicians, residing beyond 
the limits of Philadelphia. 

4. The Corresponding Members shall be foreign 
or American physicians, residing beyond the 
limits of Philadelphia, and shall be selected be- 
cause of their devotion to medical science, and 
with a view to advance the interests for which the 
College was founded. 

5. No person who gives his support to any sys- 
tem of practice which tends to weaken or diminish 
public confidence in the science of medicine, or 
in the medical profession ; or who, by advertise- 
ment or other improper means, announces his 



11 



claim to superior qualifications in the treatment 
of disease, or of a particular disease or class of 
diseases ; or who holds a patent or a part of a 
patent for a surgical instrument; or who enters 
into an agreement with an apothecary with a 
view to pecuniary profit or to professional pa- 
tronage ; or who gives to one apothecary the 
formula of a prescription which he refuses to 
give to others ; or who deals in secret medicines, 
or publicly recommends them, shall be eligible to 
be a Fellow, Associate Fellow, or Corresponding 
Member of the College. Any Fellow, Associate 
Fellow, or Corresponding Member who shall be 
found guilty by the Censors of having violated 
any of these provisions, shall forfeit his member- 
ship in the College: Provided, however, that an 
appeal from the decision of the Censors shall be 
permitted in this, as in all other cases. 

6. Candidates for Fellowship, Associate Fellow- 
ship, or Corresponding Membership, may be pro- 
posed in writing, by three Fellows, at any stated 
meeting of the College. Every proposition for 
Fellowship shall be referred to the Council, and 
upon its favorable recommendation the candidate 
shall be eligible for election at any stated meet- 
ing ; but no proposition shall be submitted to a 
vote unless it shall have been read at three suc- 
cessive stated meetings of the College, and unless 
proper notice of the candidacy shall have been 
given, and unless there are present at least twenty 
qualified voters, when, if four-fifths of the ballots 



12 



cast be favorable to tbe candidate, he shall be de- 
clared duly elected. 

7. No candidate who is rejected shall be again 
proposed within the twelve months following the 
date of such rejection. 

8. The names of the persons proposed as can- 
didates for Fellowship, Associate Fellowship, or 
Corresponding Membership, shall not be entered 
on the minutes of the College, unless the said 
candidates are elected. In case of the rejection 
of any candidate, the paper containing his nomi- 
nation shall be destroyed immediately after the 
ballot. 

9. No person elected shall acquire the rights of 
Fellowship until he has signed the Ordinances 
and By-laws, and paid the entrance fee ; and the 
omission of such signing and payment until the 
expiration of three months after his election, shall 
render his election void. 

10. The entrance fee shall be twenty-five dollars, 
payable on or before signing the Ordinances and 
By-laws. The annual contribution shall be fifteen 
dollars, payable in advance, in three equal instal- 
ments, at the stated meetings in January, May, 
and September respectively ; but no entrance fee 
and no annual contribution shall be required of 
those Fellows, not exceeding five in number at 
any one time, who have been recommended by 
the Council, and approved by the College, as 
deserving such distinction, on account of their 
scientific attainments, or of their services to the 
College. 



13 



11. A Fellow on the payment in one sum of 
two hundred dollars, provided he be not in arrears 
at the time, shall be exempt from all annual 
contributions during the continuance of his Fellow- 
ship. All sums so paid shall be invested by the 
Treasurer, under the direction of the Committee 
on Finance, as a permanent fund ; and only the 
income thereof shall be used. 

12. Any Fellow who foils to pay his annual 
contribution, shall, at the expiration of two years, 
be formally notified thereof by the Treasurer, and 
if he then fails to make payment within thirty 
days, he shall forfeit his Fellowship, and it shall 
be the duty of the Treasurer to give notice thereof 
at the next stated meeting of the College : Provided, 
however, that if any Fellow shall be absent from 
Philadelphia, for twelve consecutive months or 
more, a deduction shall be made from the amount 
of his annual contribution, corresponding to the 
duration of his absence. 

13. No Fellow who may remove permanently 
from the United States, or who may remove from 
the city of Philadelphia, to reside at a distance 
exceeding thirty miles from the city, shall in 
consequence ot such removal, forfeit his Fellow- 
ship ; but he shall be exonerated from the payment 
of the annual contribution after his formal notifi- 
cation to the Secretary of the College of his 
change of residence. 

14. No Associate Fellow or Corresponding 
Member who may come to reside within the limits 



14 



of the city of Philadelphia, shall be admitted to 
Fellowship in the College without being proposed 
anew and elected as a Fellow. 

15. The number of Associate Fellows shall not 
exceed fifty, twenty of whom may he foreigners. 

16. Associate Fellows and Corresponding Mem- 
bers may attend the meetings of the College and 
participate in its discussions, but shall not be 
allowed to take part in the transaction of its 
private business. 

17. Every Fellow, Associate Fellow, and Cor- 
responding Member of the College shall receive 
a certificate of Fellowship according to the an- 
nexed form, signed by the President, Vice-Presi- 
dent, Censors, and Secretary, and having the seal 
of the College affixed thereto. 

Nos, Preeses, Viec-Prccses, Censoresque Collegii Medi- 
corum Philadelphia} sis, omnibus ad quos haze per- 
venerint, salutem. 

Testamur virum doctum 

et medicinoe, perilum, nostri Collegii Socium 

adscriptum fuisse, omnesque ejus honores et privileqia, 
jure riteque consecution esse. In cvjus reijidem hisee 
Uteris, Collegii sigillo munitis, nomina nostra subjici- 



mus. 



Datum Philadelphia, 

1 rs Oi£J<t. 



Anno Domini 18 
Prceses 



15 



18. The signing of the Constitution adopted in 
1787, shall be deemed equivalent to a subscription 
to the Ordinances and By-laws of the College in 
force for the time being. 

19. When the announcement is made to the 
College of the death of a Fellow, it shall be entered 
upon the minutes, and a Fellow shall be appointed 
by the President, whenever the Censors shall so 
recommend, to prepare a memoir of the deceased. 



CHAPTER II. 

OFFICERS OF THE COLLEGE AND THEIR DUTIES. 

1. The officers of the College, designated by its 
Charter, namely, a President, a Vice-President, 
four Censors, a Secretary, and a Treasurer, shall 
be nominated on the first Wednesday in December 
of each year, and elected annually, by ballot, on 
the first Wednesday in January, or within one 
calendar month thereafter. ~No Fellow shall be 
eligible to the office of President for more than 
three years in succession. 

An Honorary Librarian, a Curator, a Recorder, 
two Councillors, to serve for three years, and the 
Members of the several Standing Committees, 
except the Committee on Finance, the Committee 
on Entertainments, and the Committee on the 
William F. Jenks prize, shall be annually nomi- 
nated and elected at the same time and in the 
same manner as prescribed for the election of the 
Officers designated by the Charter of the College. 



16 



Any vacancy may be filled by special election, 
of which due notice shall be given ; but no Fellow 
shall be eligible for election to any office or elec- 
tive Standing Committee, who has not been duly 
nominated at a stated meeting previous to that at 
which the election is held. Any vacancy occur- 
ring in an appointed Standing Committee shall 
be thereupon filled by the President. 

At each annual or special election the Secretary 
shall provide a sufficient number of ballots con- 
taining: the names of those Fellows who have 
been duly nominated for election to any office or 
Standing Committee. 

The voter shall erase from his ballot all names, 
except those of candidates for whom he wishes to 
vote. If more names of those nominated for any 
office than there are places to be filled are allowed 
to remain, the ballot as regards thatoffi.ee shall be 
rejected. 

2. The President shall have general supervision 
of the affairs of the College, maintain order at the 
meetings, sign all warrants on the Treasurer, duly 
ordered by the College, and deliver an Annual 
Address at the stated meeting in December. He 
shall have power to call special meetings at his 
own discretion ; and it shall be his duty to call 
them, when requested to do so in writing by six 
Fellows. He shall be notified of the times of 
meeting of all Standing Committees, and have a 
right to attend the same. 



17 



3. The Vice-President shall perform the duties 
of the President in the absence of the latter officer, 
or at his request when present. In the absence of 
both the President and Vice-President, a Chair- 
man for the meeting shall be elected vied voce. 

4. The Censors shall hear all charges that may 
be preferred against a Fellow ; and shall report 
thereon to the College at its next stated meeting. 
When, however, a Censor is one of the parties 
concerned, the charge shall be referred to a com- 
mittee of three Fellows chosen by ballot, who 
shall act as Censors pro hdc vice. 

5. The Treasurer shall have the custody of all 
papers relating to the finances of the College; he 
shall collect and receive all moneys due to the 
College, and shall disburse them only upon a 
warrant ordered by the College and signed by the 
President, or by the Chairman of the meeting at 
which the warrant was ordered ; and these warrants 
shall be the vouchers for his expenditures. At the 
stated meeting in December, he shall present an 
annual report, embracing a statement of the 
finances of the College, and an estimate" of the 
income for the ensuing year, together with an 
estimate of the expenses of his office for the same 
period. 

6. The Secretary shall keep correct minutes of 
the proceedings of the College, and after their 
approval, shall enter them in a book provided for 
the purpose. He shall keep a list of the Fellows, 
Associate Fellows, and Corresponding Members, 



18 



with a record of the residence, the date of the 
election, and the time of the death, resignation, 
or loss of Fellowship of each. He shall have 
the custody of all the records ; and shall keep in 
regular files, properly labelled, all documents and 
papers, belonging to the College, not otherwise 
provided for. He shall notify the Officers and 
members of Standing Committees of their election; 
also the Chairman of every Special Committee of 
his appointment, and shall furnish each Chairman 
with the names of his associates and a copy of the 
resolution under which they were appointed, 
together with the documents necessary for the 
proper performance of its duties. He shall transmit 
to the Council, copies of all propositions for 
Fellowship in the College. He shall notify the 
Fellows of all propositions for Fellowship and the 
dates of the meeting of the Council at which the 
proposition will' be acted upon, and he shall also 
notify the Fellows of the names of all candidates 
who have been recommended by the Council for 
election by the College. He shall furnish certifi- 
cates of Fellowship to newly-elected Fellows, 
Associate Fellows, and Corresponding Members; 
and perform all other duties appropriate to his 
office, which may be imposed upon him by any 
ordinance or resolution of the College. 

At the stated meeting in December, he- shall 
present a report containing a statement of the 
Fellowship of the College, of the attendance at 
the meetings, and such other information as may 



19 



be deemed proper, together with an estimate of 
the expanses of his office for the ensuing year. 

7. The Recorder shall keep full and accurate 
minutes of the scientific proceedings of the College, 
and enter them, after approval, in a book provided 
for the purpose. He shall take charge of all 
scientific papers read and intended for publication. 
He shall record all verbal communications on 
professional subjects, and prepare a faithful 
summary of the discussions thereon; such papers 
and record of communications and remarks, he 
shall, under the direction of the Committee of 
Publication, and after revision by their authors, 
arrange and prepare for publication in the Trans- 
actions of the College. lie shall be, ex officio, a 
member of the Committee of Publication. 

8. The Honorary Librarian shall be ex officio a 
member of the Library Committee, and under its 
authority he shall have a general superintendence 
of the Library and direction of all persons em- 
ployed therein. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE COUNCIL. 

1. The Council shall consist of the President, 
Vice-President, Censors, Secretary, Treasurer, the 
Honorary Librarian, the Recorder, and the Chair- 
men of the Standing Committees, with six Coun- 
cillors. Of the Councillors, two shall be annually 



20 



elected at the stated meeting in January, to serve 
for three years; and they shall be ineligible for 
re-election until they have been out of office for a 
year. 

2. The Council shall hold a stated monthly 
meeting on a day not less than one week preced- 
ing the stated monthly meeting of the College. 
It shall be presided over by the President of the 
College, and the Secretary, acting as Clerk, shall 
keep correct minutes of its proceedings, and 
report its conclusions to the College. It shall 
receive and consider all information in reference 
to qualifications of persons proposed for Fellow- 
ship. All communications made to the Council 
in reference thereto shall be considered as strictly 
confidential. At each stated monthly meeting of 
the Council, the members shall vote separately by 
ballot for each candidate for Fellowship, whose 
name shall have been reported by the Secretary 
of the College, as having been submitted to the 
Fellows in accordance with the By-laws ; the votes 
of seven members of the Council shall be requisite 
for, and three negative votes shall preclude from 
favorable recommendation to the College. The 
Council shall, however, have power at its discre- 
tion to postpone until its next stated meeting final 
action upon a proposition for Fellowship. It 
shall at once give notice thereof to the signers of 
the proposition for Fellowship upon which action 
has been postponed, together with such further 
information as it may deem proper. Any two 



21 



of the proponents may withdraw their proposition 
at any time before final action by the Council. 

3. After the limit of Associate Fellowship is 
reached, the Secretary of the College shall file 
away, in the order of their reception, all proposi- 
tions for Associate Fellowship ; and when a 
vacancy occurs, he shall notify the Council and 
the Fellows of the names of the candidates, as 
hereinbefore provided. 

4. The Council shall have general supervision 
of the affairs of the College, consider all ques- 
tions that may be referred to it, and report to the 
College, in writing, its decision thereon. It shall 
submit to the College, from time to time, such sug- 
gestions as it shall believe adapted to promote the 
objects for which the College was instituted. 

5. The Council may at any time call a special 
meeting of the College. 

6. The place of any Fellow elected to the 
Council shall be considered vacant, should he at 
any time be elected to another office making him, 
ex officio, a member of the Council, and shall be 
filled by special election, as hereinbefore provided. 
The holding of an office constituting any Fellow 
a member of the Council shall preclude his elec- 
tion as a Councillor. 



22 



CHAPTER IV. 

MEETINGS. 

1. The Stated Meetings of the College shall he 
held on the first Wednesday in every month, 
excepting July and August, at eight o'clock, P. M. 
At this hour, or as soon thereafter as a quorum, 
which shall consist of seven Fellows, shall have 
assembled, the meeting shall be organized. 

2. The Order of business shall be — 

] st. The reading of the minutes of the last 
stated and special meetings for ap- 
proval or correction. 

2d. Introduction of newly-elected Fellows. 

3d. Announcement of additions to the Library 
and to the Museum. 

4th. Written communications. 

5th. Verbal communications. 
Private business. 

6th. Nominations. 

7th. Elections. 

8th. Report of the Council and of Com- 
mittees. 

9th. Stated business; deferred business ; new 
business. 

3. At the stated meeting in December, the 
President shall deliver his annual address ; the 
Treasurer, the Secretary, and all Standing Com- 
mittees, except the Committee on Finance, shall 
present their annual reports. Each of them, ex- 
cepting the Committees on the Mutter Museum and 



23 



the "William F. Jenks prize, shall present an esti- 
mate of its expenses for the ensuing year. Nomi- 
nations of Officers, Councillors, Honorary Libra- 
rian, Recorder, and members of elective Standing 
Committees for the following year, shall be made. 

4. At the stated meeting in January, the 
Committee on Finance shall present its annual 
report; the annual appropriations shall be made; 
the Officers and members of the elective Com- 
mittees of the College for the current year, shall 
be balloted for. 

5. At the stated meeting in February, the 
President shall appoint the Committee on Finance, 
the Committee on Entertainments, and every third 
year the William F. Jenks Prize Committee. 

6. At the stated meeting in March, of every third 
year, after 1864, a lecturer on Surgical Pathology 
shall be nominated and appointed. 

7. No business shall be transacted at any special 
meeting except that for which it was called. 

8. At the stated meetings, except during the 
consideration of the private business of the College, 
strangers may be present on the invitation of a 
Fellow who shall present them to the President, 
and shall be held responsible for the character and 
professional standing of the persons introduced 
by him. 



24 



CHAPTER V. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

1. The Standing Committees of the College 
shall be : — 

I. A Committee of Publication. 
II. A Library Committee 

III. A Committee on the Mutter Museum. 

IV. A Hall Committee. 

V. A Committee on the Directory for Nurses. 
VI. A Committee on Finance. 
VII. A Committee on the W. F. Jenks Prize. 
VIII. A Committee on Entertainments. 

2. The first, third, fifth, sixth and seventh of 
the said Committees shall consist each of three 
Fellows; the eighth, of four fellows; and the 
second and fourth, each of five Fellows. 

3. All business of the Standing Committees, 
requiring action by the College, shall first be laid 
before the Council. 



CHAPTER VI. 

COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 

1. It shall be the duty of the Committee of 
Publication to revise and issue, from time to 
time, Transactions of the College, which shall 
comprise, as far as the Committee may deem 
expedient : 1. Written communications ; 2. 
Verbal communications ; and, 3. An abstract of 
discussions. 



25 



2. ISTo paper read before the College shall be 
published elsewhere than in the Transactions 
without the consent of the College, or of the 
Committee of Publication. 

3. The Transactions, as soon as published, shall 
be distributed by the Secretary of the College, 
without charge, to each of the Fellows, Associate 
Fellows, and Corresponding Members. 

4. The Committee of Publication shall present 
to the College at the stated meeting in December, 
an annual report, with a statement of its receipts 
and expenditures, and an estimate of its expenses 
for the ensuing year. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 

1. The Library Committee shall have charge 
of the Library, and shall report upon its condi- 
tion, annually, at the stated meeting in December, 
and at the same time submit an estimate of its 
expenses for the ensuing year. 

2. The Library Committee annually in January 
shall appoint an Assistant Librarian, and report 
the appointment to the College. The Assistant 
Librarian shall act as secretary of the Library 
Committee, and shall perform all duties pertaining 
to his office under the direction of the Library 
Committee and the Honorary Librarian. He shall 
keep a record of the titles of all books purchased 

2 



26 



for the Library, or presented to it, together with 
the names of the donors, and transmit a copy of 
the same to the Secretary of the College for 
presentation at its stated meetings. He shall duly 
acknowledge all gifts to the Library. He shall be 
on duty daily (Sundays and other legal holidays 
excepted) between such hours as the Library 
Committee may prescribe, and shall issue and 
receive books in accordance with the regulations 
embraced in Chapter VIE. He shall receive such 
salary as the College may from time to time 
determine. 

3. The Library Committee and the Committee 
on the Directory for Nurses in joint meeting, shall 
appoint annually in January a person to act as 
Assistant in the Library and as Secretary of the 
Directory for Nurses. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

RULES FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE LIBRARY. 

1. Fellows shall be allowed to take books out 
of the Library with such exceptions and under 
such rules as from time to time the Library Com- 
mittee may make : Provided, that no Fellow shall 
be allowed to take out at any one time more than 
one folio or quarto, or three octavos, duodecimos, 
or bound periodicals without special permission, 
as hereinafter stated; or to retain the same without 
renewal for a longer period than two weeks. The 



27 



Assistant Librarian shall register the titles of the 
books taken out, with the name of the Fellow to 
whom loaned, and the dates at which they were 
taken out and returned. 

2. Special permission to take out more than the 
above mentioned number of books may be granted 
upon a written application approved by two mem- 
bers of the Library Committee. 

3. If any Fellow retain the book or books bor- 
rowed by him longer than two weeks, without 
renewal, he shall pay a fine of twenty cents for 
every week each volume is so retained. 

4. No Fellow shall be allowed to use the Library 
while any fines due by him remain unpaid. 

5. If a book be lost by a Fellow, he shall either 
replace it, or pay the value thereof, or of the set 
of books to which it belongs, as the Library Com- 
mittee may decide. 

6. All books shall be returned to the Library 
before the stated meeting in November, at the 
discretion of the Library Committee, to enable the 
Committee to make its annual report. 

7. The Assistant Librarian, as soon as practi- 
cable after the receipt of the current journals and 
new publications, shall make such arrangements 
as will enable the Fellows to consult them. 

8. Visitors introduced by Fellows shall be al- 
lowed to consult books in the Library rooms, in 
accordance with the rules adopted from time to 
time by the College or the Library Committee. 



28 



CHAPTER IX. 

COMMITTEE ON THE MUTTER MUSEUM. 

1. The Committee on the Mutter Museum shall 
have a general supervision of the Museum, and 
shall take all such measures as may he deemed 
expedient for its preservation and increase. 

2. " Free access to the Museum and prepara- 
tions shall he given to every regular graduate in 
medicine, and to every student of medicine, with- 
out charge or fee, subject to such regulations as 
the College may deem necessary for the preserva- 
tion of order, and that other persons may he ad- 
mitted on the presentation of a ticket bearing upon 
it the signature of any Fellow of the College." 

" Proper accommodations, such as chairs, tables, 
pen, ink, and paper, shall always be present in the 
Museum for those who may be inclined to draw 
or describe any of the preparations." 

" No one shall be permitted to remove from the 
College Building, except for necessary repairs or 
preparation, any article belonging to the said 
Mutter Museum, after the same shall have been 
deposited there." 

3. The Chairman of the Committee shall receive 
the income of the trust fund presented to the Col- 
lege by Dr. T. D. Mutter; which income shall be 
disbursed by the Committee, under the supervision 
of the College, in accordance with the agreement 
made between the College and Dr. Mutter, as 



29 



recited in the deed of trust to the Pennsylvania 
Company for Insurances on Lives and Granting 
Annuities, executed by Dr. Mutter and wife, 
December the eleventh, A. D. 1858, namely : 
" 1. For the salary of a Curator $300 per annum. 
2. For the salary of a Lecturer $200 per annum. 
And the remainder of said income to the prepar- 
ing, fitting up, keeping in order, increasing, and 
insuring of pathological and anatomical prepara- 
tions and specimens, illustrative of surgery and 
medicine, drawings, models, casts, and other like 
matters, which arc intended to form the Museum." 

4. The Committee shall report, annually, to the 
College, at the stated meeting in December, the 
condition of the Museum ; and from time to time 
shall suggest such measures as may be considered 
advisable for increasing the value and usefulness 
of the collection. And semi-annually, at the 
stated meetings in December and June, the Com- 
mittee shall render to the College an account of 
all its expenditures on account of the Museum 
and Lectureship. 

5. A Curator shall be appointed annually in the 
month of February, on the nomination of the 
Committee of the Mutter Museum, who shall not be 
limited, in the choice, to Fellows of the College. 

6. The Curator shall have general charge of the 
Mutter Museum, and shall prepare, or have pre- 
pared, such pathological specimens and perform 
such other duties as the Committee may direct. 



30 



He shall label and keep a correct catalogue of 
articles presented to the Museum, with the name 
of the donor conspicuously attached to each, to- 
gether with, as far as practicable, a record of its 
history ; and shall report the new donations at 
each stated meeting of the College. He shall 
attend at the Museum, for the accommodation of 
visitors and students, on such days and at such 
hours in every week as may be directed by the 
Committee on the Mutter Museum. On such 
occasions he shall remove and replace specimens, 
afford all necessary information to students and 
other visitors-, and preserve order among those in 
attendance. 

The Curator shall receive for his services the 
sum of $300, annually, to be paid to him, by the 
Chairman of the Committee on the Mutter 
Museum, out of the income of the trust fund 
presented to the College by Dr. Mutter. 

No Professor, or Lecturer, on Surgery, or 
Medicine, shall be eligible as Curator. 

7. It shall be the duty of the Committee to 
nominate, at the stated meeting in March of 
every third year after 1864, a person to deliver a 
course of at least ten lectures on some subject 
connected with surgical pathology: Provided, that 
the same Lecturer shall not be nominated twice 
in succession. 

8. The Committee shall determine the time for 
the delivery and the duration of the course ; and 
make all proper arrangements for attaining the 
objects of the Lectureship. 



31 



9. The lectures shall be delivered within the 
College Building; and the Lecturer shall have the 
use of the Museum for the purpose of illustrating 
them. 

10. The Lecturer shall he permitted to charge 
persons, not Fellows of the College, attending his 
lectures a fee of five to ten dollars, as he may 
himself determine. He shall, however, distribute 
" ten gratuitous tickets to poor but well educated 
and moral students of regular medicine, whom he 
may select at will." 

11. The Committee shall see that the lectures 
are delivered in accordance with the terms of the 
agreement between the College and Dr. Mutter, 
and that each Fellow is supplied with a ticket of 
admission. 

12. Upon the favorable report of the Committee, 
the College shall direct an order to be drawn upon 
the Chairman of the Committee on the Mutter 
Museum in favor of said Lecturer for the sum of 
$200, to be paid out of the income of the trust 
fund presented to the College by Dr. Mutter. 

13. Whenever lectures so delivered are pub- 
lished, their title shall indicate distinctly that they 
are the " Mutter Lectures," delivered under the 
auspices of the College of Physicians of Phila- 
delphia, and the Lecturer shall deposit a copy 
thereof in the Library of the College within thirty 
days after their publication. 



82 



CHAPTER X. 

HALL COMMITTEE. 

1. The Hall Committee shall have charge of 
the Hall of the College, and of all pro] >erty therein 
not otherwise provided for, subject to such in- 
structions as the College may give. 

2. Under general instructions of the College, it 
shall have power to grant the use of the apart- 
ments in the Hall for scientific, literary, and 
philanthropic purposes, upon such conditions as 
the Committee may deem satisfactory. Provided., 
however, that the occupation of such apartments 
shall not interfere with the convenience of the 
College. 

3. The Hall Committee shall employ a Door- 
keeper for the Hall, who shall receive specimens 
for the Mutter Museum, act as Messenger, and 
perform all other duties that may be required of 
him in the general service of the College. 

4. The Hall Committee shall present to the 
College, at the stated meeting in December, an- 
nually, a report of its proceedings, and of the 
condition of the Hall, and at the same time submit 
an estimate of the sum required for its care and 
preservation for the ensuing year, 



83 



CHAPTER XI. 

COMMITTEE ON THE DIRECTORY FOR NURSES. 

1. The Committee on the Directory for Nurses 
shall have charge of the Directory, and make all 
rules necessary for its management. 

2. It shall report annually in December its pro- 
ceedings, with a statement of the progress and 
condition of the Directory, including its receipts 
and expenditures, and pay to the Treasurer of the 
College, for the use of the Library, such portion 
of its receipts as the Committee shall consider 
expedient. 

3. The Committee on the Directory for Nurses 
and the Library Committee in joint meeting shall 
appoint annually, in January, a person to act as 
Assistant in the Library and as Secretary of the 
Directory for Nurses. 



CHAPTER XII. 

COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. 

1. The President annually, in February, shall 
appoint three Fellows, who, with the President 
and Treasurer, ex officio, shall constitute the Com- 
mittee on Finance. 

2. Annually in December it shall audit the ac- 
counts of the Treasurer and of the Standing Com- 
mittees, and report the result at the stated meeting 
in January. 

2* 



34 



3. All appropriations asked for in the annual 
reports of the Standing Committees shall be sub- 
mitted to the Committee on Finance for examina- 
tion, and report in January. 

4. No Officer or Committee shall incur any 
indebtedness for which an appropriation has not 
been previously made. 



CHAPTER XIII 

THE WILLIAM F. .JENKS PRIZE COMMITTEE. 

The William F. Jenks Prize Committee shall 
consist of three Fellows, who shall serve for three 
years. It shall be appointed by the President, 
with the advice and consent of the Trustees of 
the William F. Jenks Memorial Fund, at the 
stated meeting in February, and every three years 
thereafter. It shall have full power to arrange 
all details connected with the selection of subjects 
for dissertation and reward, and also for awarding 
of prizes as provided for in the deed of trust. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

COMMITTEE ON ENTERTAINMENTS. 

The President annually, in February, shall ap- 
point four Fellows, who, with the President, ex 
officio, shall constitute the Committee on Enter- 
tainments. It shall have charge of all arrange- 
ments relating to entertainments ordered by the 
College, the expenses of which shall be defrayed 



35 



out of the income of the Weir Mitchell Entertain- 
ment Fund. 



CHAPTER XV. 

NEGLECT OF DUTY. 

1. Any Officer, Member of the Council, or 
Member of a Standing Committee, who shall 
neglect the discharge of his duty during twelve 
months in succession, except on account of ill 
health or absence from the city, shall be disquali- 
fied for re-election. And it shall be the duty of 
the Clerk of the Council and of the Chairman of 
the Standing Committees to report the delinquents 
of the preceding year to the College immediately 
before each annual election. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

SPECIAL COMMITTEES. 

1. The President shall appoint all Special Com- 
mittees, unless it be otherwise ordered by the 
College. 

2. The first named Fellow shall be the Chair- 
man of the Committee, and shall see that its duties 
are duly performed. 

3. Special Committees shall report at the stated 
meeting immediately succeeding their appoint- 
ment, unless it be otherwise determined by a reso- 
lution or a law of the College. Their reports 
shall be made in writing, and signed by a majority 
of the Committee. 



36 



CHAPTER XVII. 

RULES OF ORDER. 

1. No questions shall be considered open for dis- 
cussion, except when brought forward by motion 
duly made and seconded, and then distinctly stated 
by the presiding officer. The name of the mover 
of each motion must be entered upon the minutes. 

2. Every motion shall be reduced to writing by 
the mover, if the presiding officer or any Fellow 
request the same. 

3. Any Fellow may call for the division of a 
question, provided it comprehend more than one 
distinct proposition. A motion to strike out and 
insert shall be deemed indivisible ; but a motion 
to strike out shall not preclude either amendment 
or a motion to strike out and insert. 

4. The mover, with the consent of the seconder, 
may withdraw any motion previously to its amend- 
ment, commitment, or to the question upon its final 
passage being put by the presiding officer. 

5. When a Fellow speaks, he shall stand up, 
addressing himself to the presiding officer, and 
confining himself strictly to the question under 
consideration. 

6. No Fellow shall lie interrupted while speak- 
ing, except by a call to order. 



CHAPTER XVII— DISCIPLINE. 

Sec. 1. Charges of conduct unbecoming a Member may be made against 
either a Fellow, an Associate Fellow or a Corresponding Member of the 
College. Such charges shall be in writing and signed by at least one Fellow, 
and shall he made directly to the Ceusors. The charges shall be investi- 
gated by the Censors in whatever manner they may deem wise ; after which 
they may in their discretion report the result of their investigation to the 
College, with or without a recommendation of discipline. Prodded, that no 
report shall be made to the College without the accused having had an 
opportunity to appear before the Censors and defend himself from the 
charges preferred. 

Sec. 2. The College, after receiving the report of the Censors, may dis- 
cipline the accused Fellow, Associate Fellow or Corresponding Member, by 
censure, by suspension or by expulsion. 

Sec. 3. Motions touching questions of discipline shall be voted upon by 
ballot. A motion to censure shall be adopted it a majority of the votes cast 
be affirmative. A motion to suspend or to expel shall be adopted if two- 
thirds of the votes cast be affirmative, not less than twenty Fellows voting ; 
but no motion to expel shall be acted upon at the same meeting at which it 
has been introduced, nor unless due notice thereof has been given in the call 
lor the meeting at which action is to be taken upon said proposition. 

Sec. 4. Suspension shall, during its continuance, deprive the person sus- 
jended of all the privileges of membership. In case of expulsion all the 
ights of membership pertaining to the person expelled shall vest in the Col- 
ege. 

Sec. 5. In any case in which the Censors recommend discipline the ac- 
used shall be informed of the recommendation, and shall be offered an 
ppoitunity to make before the College a statement, oral or written, in regard 
o the same ; but he shall be required to withdraw from the meeting before 
he College proceeds to deliberate and act upon his case. 

Sec. 6. Any Fellow, Associate Fellow or Corresponding Member who is 
nder suspension may be restored by the College, on the recommendation of I lie 
ensors. by a two-thirds vote, not less then twenty Fellows voting. 

To change the numbers of succeeding Chapters to XVIII, XIX and XX. 



37 



7. The presiding officer shall decide all questions 
of order- unless an appeal be made to the College; 
in which case the Fellow appealing shall first state 
his reasons for the appeal, and then the presiding 
officer his reasons in support of his decision; but 
no further debate shall be allowed. 

8. No Fellow shall be allowed to speak more 
than twice upon the same question, without per- 
mission being granted him by the College. 

9. Whilst a question is under consideration, no 
motion shall be received excepting to adjourn, to 
lay the subject upon the table, to postpone, to refer 
to a committee, or to amend; which several mo- 
tions shall have precedence in the order in which 
they are named. 

10. A motion for adjournment shall always be 
in order, except when the College is voting on 
another question, or while a Fellow is speaking. 

11. A motion to amend an amendment is in 
order, but not one to amend an amendment to the 
amendment. The question on the amendment 
shall be decided before that on the main question. 

12. No motion shall be received to postpone the 
motion under discussion for the purpose of intro- 
ducing a substitute. 

13. A motion for postponement shall preclude 
commitment; and one for commitment shall pre- 
clude amendment, also, a decision on the original 
question. 



38 



14. Motions for postponement, to lay upon the 
table, and for adjournment, shall always be deter- 
mined without debate. 

15. A motion which has been negatived, cannot 
be again brought forward at the same meeting, 
excepting upon a motion to reconsider. 

16. No question shall be reconsidered, excepting 
on the motion of two Fellows who voted with the 
majority when the question was decided; and un- 
less submitted at the meeting at which the same 
has been discussed. 

17. When a blank is to be filled, the question 
shall be first taken on the largest sum, greatest 
number, and remotest period. 

18. Two Fellows may demand the yeas and nays 
on any question which is not required to be decided 
by ballot, and have them entered upon the minutes. 
The presiding officer in such cases shall always 
vote last. 

19. ~No order shall be taken upon the report of 
any special committee, excepting to refer it back to 
the committee, to lay it upon the table, or to obtain 
the sense of the College in relation to the resolu- 
tions appended thereto. 

20. The presiding officer shall not discuss any 
subject while in the chair, but may assign his 
reasons on deciding a question of order. He shall 
have no vote excepting on a ballot, or upon a call 
for the yeas and nays. 



39 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

CODE OF MEDICAL ETHICS. 

OF THE DUTIES OF PHYSICIANS TO THEIR PATIENTS, 
AND OF THE OBLIGATIONS OF PATIENTS TO THEIR 
PHYSICIANS. 

Art. I. — Duties of physicians to their patients. 

§ 1. A physician should not only be ever ready 
to obey the calls of the sick, but his mind ought 
also to be imbued with the greatness of his mission 
and the responsibility he habitually incurs in its 
discharge. Those obligations are the more deep 
and enduring, because there is no tribunal other 
than his own conscience to adjudge penalties for 
carelessness or neglect. Physicians should, there- 
fore, minister to the sick with due impressions of 
the importance of their office ; reflecting that the 
ease, the health, and the lives of those committed 
to their charge, depend on their skill, attention, 
and fidelity. They should study, also, in their 
deportment, so to unite tenderness with firmness, 
and condescension with authority, as to inspire the 
minds of their patients with gratitude, respect and 
confidence. 

§ 2. Every case committed to the charge of a 
physician should be treated with attention, steadi- 
ness, and humanity. Reasonable indulgence should 
be granted to the mental imbecility and caprices 
of the sick. Secrecy and delicacy, when required 



40 



by peculiar circumstances, should be strictly ob- 
served; and the familiar and confidential inter- 
course to which physicians are admitted in their 
professional visits, should be used with discretion, 
and with the most scrupulous regard to fidelity 
and honor. The obligation of secrecy extends 
beyond the period of professional services; none 
of the privacies of personal and domestic life, no 
infirmity of disposition or flaw of character ob- 
served during professional attendance should ever 
be divulged by the physician except when he is 
imperatively required to do so. The force and 
necessity of this obligation are indeed so great that 
professional men have, under certain circumstan- 
ces, been protected in their observance of secrecy 
by courts of justice. 

§ 3. Frequent visits to the sick are in general 
requisite, since they enable the physician to arrive 
at a more perfect knowledge of the disease — to 
meet promptly every change which may occur, and 
also tend to preserve the confidence of the patient. 
But unnecessary visits are to be avoided, as they 
give useless anxiety to the patient, tend to diminish 
the authority of the physician, and render him 
liable to be suspected of interested motives. 

§ 4. A physician should not be forward to make 
gloomy prognostications, because they savor of 
empiricism, by magnifying the importance of his 
Bervices in the treatment or cure of the disease. 
But he should not fail, on proper occasions, to 
give to the friends of the patient timely notice of 



41 



clanger when it really occurs; and even to the 
patient himself, if absolutely necessary. This 
office, however, is so peculiarly alarming' when 
executed by him, that it ought to be declined 
whenever it can be assigned to any other person 
of sufficient judgment and delicacy. For the 
physician should be the minister of hope and 
comfort to the sick; that, by such cordials to the 
drooping spirit, he may smooth the bed of death, 
revive expiring life, and counteract the depressing 
influence of those maladies which often disturb 
the tranquillity of the most resigned in their last 
moments. The life of a sick person can be 
shortened, not only by the acts, but also by the 
words or the manner of a physician. It is, there- 
fore, a sacred duty to guard himself carefully in 
this respect, and to avoid all things which have a 
tendency to discourage the patient and to depress 
his spirits. 

§ 5. A physician ought not to abandon a patient 
because the case is deemed incurable ; for his at- 
tendance may continue to be highly useful to the^ 
patient, and comforting to the relatives around 
him, even in the last period of a fatal malady, by 
alleviating pain and other symptoms, and by 
soothing mental anguish. To decline attendance, 
under such circumstances, would be sacrificing to 
fanciful delicacy and mistaken liberality, that 
moral duty, which is independent of, and far 
superior to, all pecuniary consideration, 



42 



§ 6. Consultations should be promoted in diffi- 
cult or protraeted cases, as they give rise to confi- 
dence, energy, and more enlarged views in practice. 

§ 7. The opportunity which a physician not 
unfrequently enjoys of promoting and strengthen- 
ing the good resolutions of his patients, suffering 
under the consequences of vicious conduct, ought 
never to be neglected. His counsels, or even 
remonstrances, will give satisfaction, not offence, 
if they be proffered with politeness, and evince a 
genuine love of virtue, accompanied by a sincere 
interest in the welfare of the person to whom they 
are addressed. 

Art. II. — Obligations of patients to their physicians. 

§ 1. The members of the medical profession, upon 
whom is enjoined the performance of so many iin- 
portantand arduous duties towards the community, 
and who are required to make so many sacrifices of 
comfort, ease, and health, for the welfare of those 
who avail themselves of their services,certainly have 
a right to expect and require, that their patients 
should entertain a just sense of the duties which 
they owe to their medical attendants. 

§ 2. The first duty of a, patient is to select as his 
medical adviser one who has received a regular pro- 
fessional education. In no trade or occupation do 
mankind rely on the skill of an untaught artist; and 
in medicine, confessedly the most difficult and intri- 
cate of the sciences, the world ought not to suppose 
that knowledge is intuitive. 



4^ 



§ 3. Patients should prefer a physician whose 
habits of life are regular, and who is not devoted to 
company, pleasure, or to any pursuit incompatible 
with his professional obligations. A patient should, 
also, confide the care of himself and family, as much 
as possible, to one physician; for a medical man who 
has become acquainted with the peculiarities of con- 
stitution, habits, and predispositions of those he at- 
tends, is more likely to be successful in his treat- 
ment than one who does not possess that knowledge. 

A patient who has thus selected his physician, 
should always apply for advice in what may appear 
to him trivial cases, for the most fatal results often 
supervene on the slightest accidents. It is of still 
more importance that he should appty for assistance 
in the forming stage of violent diseases ; it is to a 
neglect of this precept that medicine owes much of 
the uncertainty and imperfection with which it has 
been reproached. 

§ 4. Patients should faithfully and unreservedly 
communicate to their physician the supposed cause 
of their disease. This is the more important, as 
many diseases of a mental origin simulate those 
depending on external causes, and yet are only to 
be cured by ministering to the mind diseased. A 
patient should never be afraid of thus making his 
physician his friend and adviser ; he should always 
bear in mind that a medical man is under the 
strongest obligations of secrecy. Even the female 
sex should never allow feelings of shame or deli- 
cacy to prevent their disclosing the seat, symptoms, 



44 



and causes of complaints peculiar to them. How- 
ever commendable a modest reserve may be in the 
common occurrences of life, its strict observance 
in medicine is often attended with the most serious 
consequences, and a patient may sink under a pain- 
ful and loathsome disease, which might have been 
readily prevented had timely intimation been given 
to the physician. 

§ 5. A patient should never weary his physician 
with a tedious detail of events or matters not 
appertaining to his disease. Even as relates to his 
actual symptoms, he will convey much more real 
information by giving clear answers to interrog- 
atories, than by the most minute account of his 
own framing. Neither should he obtrude upon 
his physician the details of his business nor the 
history of his family concerns. 

§ 6. The obedience of a patient to the prescrip- 
tions of his physician should be prompt and 
implicit. He should never permit his own crude 
opinions as to their fitness to influence his attention 
to them. A failure in one particular may render 
an otherwise judicious treatment dangerous, and 
even fatal. Tins remark is equally applicable to 
diet, drink, and exercise. As patients become con- 
valescent, they are very apt to suppose that the 
rules prescribed for them may be disregarded, and 
the consequence, but too often, is a relapse. 
Patients should never allow themselves to be per- 
suaded to take any medicine whatever, that may 
be recommended to them by the self-constituted 



45 



doctors and doctresses who are so frequently met 
with, and who pretend to possess infallible reme- 
dies for the cure of every disease. However simple 
some of their prescriptions may appear to be, it 
often happens that they are productive of much 
mischief, and in all cases they are injurious, by con- 
travening the plan of treatment adopted by the 
physician. 

§ 7. A patient should, if possible, avoid even 
the friendly visits of a physician who is not attend- 
ing him — and when he does receive them, he 
should never converse on the subject of his disease, 
as an observation may be made, without any in- 
tention of interference, which may destroy his 
confidence in the course he is pursuing, and in- 
duce him to neglect the directions prescribed to 
him. A patient should never send for a consulting 
physician without the express consent of his own 
medical attendant. It is of great importance that 
physicians should act in concert; for, although 
their modes of treatment may be attended with 
equal success when employed singly, yet conjointly 
they are very likely to be productive of disastrous 
results. 

§ 8. When a patient wishes to dismiss his physi- 
cian, justice and common courtesy require that he 
should declare his reasons for so doing. 

§ 9. Patients should always, when practicable, 
send for their physician in the morning, before his 
usual hour of going out ; for, by being early aware 
of the visits he has to pay during the day, the 



46 



physician is able to apportion his time in such a 
manner as to prevent an interference of engage- 
ments. Patients should also avoid calling on 
their medical adviser unnecessarily during the 
hours devoted to meals or sleep. They should 
always he in readiness to receive the visits of their 
physician, as the detention of a few minutes is 
often of serious inconvenience to him. 

§ 10. A patient should after his recovery, enter- 
tain a just and enduring sense of the value of the 
services rendered him by his physician ; for those 
are of such a character, that no mere pecuniary 
acknowledgment can repay or cancel them. 

OF THE DUTIES OF PHYSICIANS TO EACH OTHER, AND 
TO THE PROFESSION AT LARGE. 

Art, I. — Duties for the support of prof essional char- 
acter. 

§ 1. Every individual, on entering the profession 
as he becomes thereby entitled to all its privileges 
and immunities, incurs an obligation to exert his 
best abilities to maintain its dignity and honor, to 
exalt its standing, and to extend the bounds of 
its usefulness. He should, therefore, observe strictly 
such laws as arc instituted for the government of 
its members ; should avoid all contumelious and 
sarcastic remarks relative to the faculty as a body ; 
and while, by unwearied diligence, he resorts to 
every honorable means of enriching the science, 
he should entertain a due respect for his seniors 



47 



who have, by. their labors brought it to the eleva- 
ted condition in which he finds it. 

§ 2. It is not in accord with the interests of the 
public or the honor of the profession that any phy- 
sician or medical teacher should examine or sign 
diplomas or certificates of proficiency for, or other- 
wise be specially concerned with, the graduation of 
persons whom they have good reasons to believe 
intend to support and practice any exclusive and 
irregular system of medicine. 

§ 3. There is no profession, from the members of 
which greater purity of character, and a higher 
standard of moral excellence are required than the 
medical ; and to attain such eminence is a duty 
every physician owes alike to his profession and to 
his patients. It is due to the latter, as without it 
he cannot command their respect and confidence, 
and to both, because no scientific attainments can 
compensate for the want of correct moral principles. 
It is also incumbent upon the faculty to be temper- 
ate in all things, for the practice of physic requires 
the unremitting exercise of a clear and vigorous 
understanding ; and, on emergencies, for which no 
professional man should be unprepared, a steady 
hand, an acute eye, and an unclouded head may be 
essential to the well-being, and even to the life, of 
a fellow-creature. 

§ 4. It is derogatory to the dignity of the profes- 
sion to resort to public advertisements, or private 
cards, or handbills, inviting the attention of indi- 
viduals affected with particular diseases — publicly 



48 



offering advice and medicine to the poor gratis, or 
promising radical cnres; or to publish cases and 
operations in the daily prints, or suffer such publi- 
cations to be made ; to invite laymen to be present 
at operations, to boast of cures and remedies, to ad- 
duce certificates of skill and success, or to perform 
any other similar acts. These are the ordinary 
practices of empirics, and are highly reprehensible 
in a regular physician. 

§ 5. Equally derogatory to professional character 
is it for a physician to hold a patent for any sur- 
gical instrument or medicine ; or to dispense a 
secret nostrum, whether it be the composition or 
exclusive property of himself or of others. For, 
if such nostrum be of real efficacy, any conceal- 
ment regarding it is inconsistent with beneficenc e 
and professional liberality; and if mystery alone 
give it value and importance, such craft implies 
either disgraceful ignorance or fraudulent avarice. 
It is also reprehensible for physicians to give cer- 
tificates attesting the efficacy of patent or secret 
medicines, or in any way to promote the use of 
them. 

Art. II. — Professional services of physicians to 
each other. 

§ 1. All practitioners of medicine, their wives, 
and their children while under the paternal care, 
are entitled to the gratuitous services of any one 
or more of the faculty residing near them, whose 
assistance may be desired. A physician afflicted 



49 



with disease is usually an incompetent judge of 
his own case ; and the natural anxiety and solici- 
tude which he experiences at the sickness of a 
wife, a child, or any one who, by the ties of con- 
sanguinity, is rendered peculiarly dear to him, 
tend to obscure his judgment, and produce 
timidity and irresolution in his practice. Under 
such circumstances, medical men are peculiarly 
dependent upon each other, and kind offices and 
professional aid should always be cheerfully and 
gratuitously afforded. Visits ought not, however, 
to be obtruded officiously; as such unasked 
civility may give rise to embarrassment, or inter^ 
fere with that choice on which confidence depends. 
But, if a distant member of the faculty, whose 
circumstances are affluent, request attendance, 
and an honorarium be offered, it should not be 
declined ; for no pecuniary obligation ought to be 
imposed, which the party receiving it would wish 
not to incur. 

Art. III. — Of the duties of 'physicians as respects 
vicarious offices. 

§ 1. The affairs of life, the pursuit of health, 
and the various accidents and contingencies to 
which a medical man is peculiarly exposed, some- 
times require him temporarily to withdraw from 
li is duties to his patients, and to request some of 
his professional brethren to officiate for him. 
Compliance with this request is an act of courtesy, 
which should always be performed with the utmost 
3 



NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 



50 



consideration for the interest and character of the 
family physician, and when exercised for a short 
period, all the pecuniary obligations for such ser- 
vice should be awarded to him. But if a member 
of the profession neglect his business in quest of 
pleasure and amusement, he cannot be considered 
as entitled to the advantages of the frequent and 
long-continued exercise of this fraternal courtesy, 
without awarding to the physician who officiates 
the fees arising from the discharge of his pro- 
fessional duties. 

In obstetrical and important surgical cases, 
which give rise to unusual fatigue, anxiety, and 
responsibility, it is just that the fees accruing 
therefrom should be awarded to the physician 
who officiates. 

Art. IV. — Of the duties of physicians in regard to 
consultations. 

§ 1. A regular medical education furnishes the 
only presumptive evidence of professional abilities 
and acquirements, and ought to be the only 
acknowledged right of an individual to the exer- 
cise and honors of his profession. Nevertheless, 
as in consultations the good of the patient is the 
sole object in view, and this is often dependent on 
personal confidence, no intelligent regular practi- 
tioner, who has a license to practise from some 
medical board of known and acknowledged re- 
spectability, recognized by the American Medical 



51 



Association, and who is in good moral and pro- 
fessional standing in the place in which he resides, 
should be fastidiously excluded from fellowship, 
or his aid refused in- consultation, when it is 
requested by the patient. But no one can be 
considered as a regular practitioner or a fit asso- 
ciate in consultation, Avhose practice is based on 
an exclusive dogma, to the rejection of the accu- 
mulated experience of the profession, and of the 
aids actually furnished by anatomy, physiology, 
pathology, and organic chemistry. 

§ 2. In consultations, no rivalship or jealousy 
should be indulged ; candor, probity, and all due 
respect should be exercised towards the physician 
having charge of the case. 

§ 3. In consultations, the attending physician 
should be the first to propose the necessary ques- 
tions to the sick, after which the consulting 
physician should have the opportunity to make 
such further inquiries of the patient as may be 
necessary to satisfy him of the true character of 
the case. Both physicians should then retire to a 
private place for deliberation ; and the one first in 
attendance should communicate the directions 
agreed upon to the patient or his friends, as well 
as any opinions which it may be thought proper 
to express. But no statement or discussion of it 
should take place before the patient or his friends, 
except in the presence of all the faculty attending, 
and by their common consent; and no opinions or 
'prognostications should be delivered which are not 



52 



the result of previous deliberation and concur- 
rence. 

§ 4. In consultations, the physician in attend- 
ance should deliver his opinion first ; and when 
there are several consulting, they should deliver 
their opinions in the order in which they have 
been called in. No decision, however, should 
restrain the attending physician from making such 
variations in the mode of treatment as any subse- 
quent unexpected change in the character of the 
case may demand. But such variation, and the 
reasons for it, ought to be carefully detailed at the 
next meeting in consultation. The same privilege 
belongs also to the consulting physician if he is 
sent for in an emergency, when the regular at- 
tendant is out of the way, and similar explanations 
must be made by him at the next consultation. 

§ 5. The utmost punctuality should bo observed 
in the visits of physicians when they are to hold 
consultation together, and this is generally practi- 
cable, for society has been considerate enough to 
allow the plea of a professional engagement to 
take precedence of all others, and to be an ample 
reason for the relinquishment of any present occu- 
pation. But as professional engagements may 
sometimes interfere, and delay one of the parties, 
the physician who first arrives should wait for his 
associate a reasonable period, after which the con- 
sultation should be considered as postponed to a 
new appointment. If it be the attending physician 
who is present, he will of course see the patient 



and prescribe; but if it be the consulting one, he 
should retire, except in case of emergency, or 
when he has been called from a considerable dis- 
tance, in which latter case he may examine the 
patient, and give his opinion in writing, and under 
seal, to be delivered to his associate. 

§ 6. In consultations, theoretical discussions 
should be avoided, as occasioning perplexity and 
loss of time. For there may be much diversity 
of opinion concerning speculative points, with 
perfect agreement in those modes of practice which 
are founded, not on hypothesis, but on experience 
and observation. 

§ 7. All discussions in consultation should be 
held as secret and confidential. Neither by words 
nor manner should any of the parties to a consul- 
tation assert or insinuate that any part of the 
treatment pursued did not receive his assent. 
The responsibility must be equally divided between 
the medical attendants — they must equally share 
the credit of success as well as the blame of 
failure. 

§ 8. Should an irreconcilable diversity of opinion 
occur when several physicians are called upon to 
consult together, the opinion of the majority 
should be considered as decisive; but if the num- 
bers be equal on each side, then the decision 
should rest with the attending physician. It 
may, moreover, sometimes happen that two phy- 
sicians cannot agree in their views of the nature of 
a case, and the treatment to be pursued. This is 



54 



a circumstance much to be deplored, and should 
always be avoided, if possible, by mutual conces- 
sions, as far as they can be justified by a conscien- 
tious regard for the dictates of judgment. But 
in the event of its occurrence, a third physician 
should, if practicable, be called to act as umpire; 
and, if circumstances prevent the adoption of this 
course, it must be left to the patient to select the 
physician in whom he is most willing to confide. 
But, as every physician relies upon the rectitude 
of his judgment, he should, when left in the 
minority, politely and consistently retire from any 
further deliberation in the consultation, or par- 
ticipation in the management of the case. 

§ 9. As circumstances sometimes occur to 
render a special consultation desirable, when the 
continued attendance of two physicians might be 
objectionable to the patient, the member of the 
faculty whose assistance is required in such cases 
should sedulously guard against all future un- 
solicited attendance. As such consultations re- 
quire an extraordinary portion both of time and 
attention, at least a double honorarium may be 
reasonably expected. 

§ 10. A physician who is called upon to consult, 
should observe the most honorable and scrupulous 
regard for the character and standing of the practi- 
tioner in attendance; the practice of the latter, if 
necessary, should be justified as for as it can be, con- 
sistently with a conscientious regard for truth, and 
no hint or insinuation should be thrown out which 



55 



could impair the confidence reposed in him, or 
affect his reputation. The consulting physician 
should also carefully refrain from any of those ex- 
traordinary attentions or assiduities which are too 
often practised by the dishonest for the base pur- 
pose of gaining applause, or ingratiating them- 
selves into the favor of families and individuals. 

Art. V. — Duties of j>hysicians in cases of interfer- 
ence. 

§ 1. Medicine is a liberal profession, and those 
admitted into its ranks should found their expec- 
tations of practice upon the extent of their quali- 
fications not on intrigue or artifice. 

§ 2. A physician, in his intercourse with a patient 
under the care of another practitioner, should ob- 
serve the strictest caution and reserve. ~Ro 
meddling inquiries should be made — no disingen- 
uous hints given relative to the nature and treat- 
ment of his disorder ; nor any course of conduct 
pursued that may directly or indirectly tend to 
diminish the trust reposed in the physician em- 
ployed. 

§ 8. The same circumspection and reserve 
should be observed when, from motives of busi- 
ness or friendship, a physician is prompted to visit 
an individual who is under the direction of an- 
other practitioner. Indeed, such visits should be 
avoided, except under peculiar circumstances; 
and when they are made, no particular inquiries 
should be instituted relative to the nature of the 



56 



disease, or the remedies employed, but the topics 
of conversation should be as foreign to the case 
as circumstances will admit. 

§ 4. A physician ought not to take charge of or 
prescribe for a patient who has recently been 
under the care of another member of the faculty 
in the same illness, except in cases of sudden em- 
ergency, or in consultation with the physician 
previously in attendance, or when the latter has 
relinquished the case, or been regularly notified 
that his services are no longer desired. Under 
such circumstances, no unjust and illiberal in- 
sinuations should be thrown out in relation to 
the conduct or practice previously pursued, which 
should be justified as far as candor and regard for 
truth and probity will permit; for it often happens 
that patients become dissatisfied when they do not 
experience immediate relief, and, as many diseases 
are naturally protracted, the want of success, in 
the first stage of treatment, affords no evidence of 
a lack of professional knowledge and skill. 

§ 5. When a physician is called to an urgent 
case, because the family attendant is not at hand, 
he ought, unless his assistance in consultation be 
desired, to resign the care of the patient to the 
latter immediately on his arrival. 

§ 6. It often happens in cases of sudden illness, 
or of recent accidents and injury, owing to the 
alarm and anxiety of friends, that a number of 
physicians are simultaneously sent for. Under 
these circumstances, courtesy should assign the 



57 



patient to the first who arrives, who should select 
from those present any additional assistance that 
he may deem necessary. In all such cases, how- 
ever, the practitioner who officiates should request 
the family physician, if there be one, to be called, 
and, unless his further attendance be requested, 
should resign the case to the latter on his arrival. 

§ 7. When a physician is called to the patient 
of another prac titioner, in consequence of the 
sickness or absence of the latter, he ought, on the 
return or recovery of the regular attendant, and 
with the consent of the patient, to surrender the 
case. 

[The expression, "patient of another practi- 
tioner," is understood to mean a patient who may 
have been under the charge of another practitioner 
at the time of the attack of sickness, or departure 
from home of the latter, or who may have called 
for his attendance during his absence or sickness, 
or in any other manner given it to be understood 
that he regarded the said physician as his regular 
medical attendant.] 

§ 8. A physician, when visiting a sick person 
in the country, may be desired to see a neighbor- 
ing patient who is under the regular direction of 
another physician, in consequence of some sudden 
change or aggravation of symptoms. The con- 
duct to be pursued on such an occasion is to give 
advice adapted to present circumstances ; to inter- 
fere no further than is absolutely necessary with 
the general plan of treatment ; to assume no future 
3* 



58 



direction, unless it be expressly desired; and, in 
this last case, to request an immediate consulta- 
tion with the practitioner previously employed. 

§ 9. A wealthy physician should not give advice 
gratis to the affluent; because his doing so is an 
injury to his professional brethren. The office of 
a physician can never be supported as an exclu- 
sively beneficent one; and it is defrauding, in 
some degree, the common funds for its support, 
when fees are dispensed with which might justly 
be claimed. 

§ 10. When a physician who has been engaged 
to attend a case of midwifery is absent, and another 
is sent for, if delivery is accomplished during the 
attendance of the latter, he is entitled to the fee, 
but should resign the patient to the practitioner 
first engaged. 

Art. VI— Of differences between physicians. 

§ 1. Diversity of opinion and opposition of in- 
terest may, in the medical as in other professions, 
sometimes occasion controversy and even con- 
tention. Whenever such cases unfortunately 
occur, and cannot be immediately terminated, 
they should be referred to the arbitration of a 
sufficient number of physicians or a court-medical. 

§ 2. As peculiar reserve must be maintained by 
physicians towards the public, in regard to profes- 
sional matters, and as there exist numerous points 
in medical ethics and etiquette through which the 
feelings of medical men may be painfully assailed 



59 



in their intercourse with each other, and which 
cannot be understood or appreciated by general 
society, neither the subject-matter of such differ- 
ences nor the adjudication of the arbitrators should 
be made public, as publicity in a case of this 
nature may be personally injurious to the individ- 
uals concerned, and can hardly fail to bring dis- 
credit on the faculty. 

Art. VII. — Of 'pecuniary acknowledgments. 

Some general rules should be adopted by the 
faculty, in every town or district, relative to 
•pecuniary acknowledgments from their patients; 
and it should be deemed a point of honor to ad- 
here to these rules with as much uniformity as 
varying circumstances will admit. 



OF THE DUTIES OF THE PROFESSION TO THE PUBLIC, 
AND OF THE OBLIGATIONS OF THE PUBLIC TO THE 
• PROFESSION. 

Art. I. — Duties of the profession to the public. 

§ 1. As good citizens, it is the duty of physicians 
to be ever vigilant for the welfare of the com- 
munity, and to bear their part in sustaining its 
institutions and burdens: they should also be 
ever ready to give counsel to the public in relation 
to matters especially appertaining to their profes- 
sion, as on subjects of medical police, public 
hygiene, and legal medicine. It is their province 



60 



to enlighten the public in regard to quarantine 
regulations; the location, arrangement, and diet- 
aries of hospitals, asylums, schools, prisons, and 
similar institutions; in relation to the medical 
police of towns, as drainage, ventilation, etc. — 
and in regard to measures for the prevention of 
epidemic and contagious diseases; and when 
pestilence prevails, it is their duty to face the 
danger, and to continue their labors for the 
alleviation of the suffering, even at the jeopardy 
of their own lives. 

§ 2. Medical men should also be always ready, 
when called on by the legally constituted authori- 
ties, to enlighten coroners' inquests and courts of 
justice, on subjects strictly medical — such as in- 
volve questions relating to sanity, legitimacy, 
murder by poisons or other violent means, and in 
regard to the various other subjects embraced in 
the science of Medical Jurisprudence. But in 
these cases, and especially where they are re- 
quired to make a post-mortem examination, it is 
just, in consequence of the time, labor, and skill 
required, and the responsibility and risk they in- 
cur, that the public should award them a proper 
honorarium. 

§ 3. There is no profession by the members of 
which eleemosynary services are more liberally dis- 
pensed than the medical, but justice requires that 
some limits should be placed to the performance 
of such good offices. Poverty, professional brother- 
hood, and certain of the public duties referred to 



61 



in the first section of this article, should always 
be recognized as presenting valid claims for gra- 
tuitous services; but neither institutions endowed 
by the public or by rich individuals, societies for 
mutual benefit, for the insurance of lives or for 
analogous purposes, nor any profession or occupa- 
tion, can be admitted to possess such privilege. 
Nor can it be justly expected of physicians to 
furnish certificates of inability to serve on juries, 
to perform militia duty, or to testify to the state 
of health of persons wishing to insure their lives, 
obtain pensions, or the like, without a pecuniary 
acknowledgment. But to individuals in indigent 
circumstances, such professional services should 
always be cheerfully and freely accorded. 

§ 4. It is the duty of physicians, who are fre- 
quent witnesses of the enormities committed by 
quackery, and the injury to health and even de- 
struction of life caused by the use of quack medi- 
cines, to enlighten the public on these subjects, 
to expose the injuries sustained by the unwary 
from the devices and pretensions of artful em- 
pirics and impostors. Physicians ought to use 
all the influence which they may possess, as 
professors in Colleges of Pharmacy, and by ex- 
ercising their option in regard to the shops to 
which their prescriptions shall be sent, to discour- 
age druggists and apothecaries from vending quack 
or secret medicines, or from being in any way 
engaged in their manufacture and sale. 



62 



Art. II. — Obligations of the public to i>hysicians. 

The benefits accruing to the public, directly 
and indirectly, from the active and unwearied be- 
neficence of the profession, are so numerous and 
important, that physicians are justly entitled to 
the utmost consideration and respect from the 
community. The public ought likewise to enter- 
tain a just appreciation of medical qualifications; 
to make a proper discrimination between true 
science and the assumptions of ignorance and 
empiricism — to afford every encouragement and 
facility for the acquisition of medical education — 
and no longer to allow the statute-books to exhibit 
the anomaly of. exacting knowledge from physi- 
cians, under a liability to heavy penalties, and of 
making them obnoxious to punishment for resort- 
ing to the only means of obtaining it. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

REVISION AND ENACTMENT OF ORDINANCES AND 
BY-LAWS. 

1. No new or amended Ordinance or By-law 
(see the last clause of the Act of Incorporation) 
shall be binding on the Officers or Fellows of the 
College, unless it shall have been proposed in 
writing and subscribed by five Fellows, at one 
stated meeting, and enacted or passed at another, 



63 



after the intervention of at least thirty days ; and 
unless it shall then be passed by a majority of 
two-thirds, there being not less than twenty 
Fellows present. 

2. Whenever a proposed alteration of the Ordi- 
nances and By-laws is to be voted on at any meet- 
ing of the College, said action shall be announced 
by the Secretary in the notice for that meeting. 



LIST 

OP * 

PRESIDENTS OF THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS, 



Date of Election. 

JOHN EEDMAN, M.D. 1787. 

WILLIAM SHIPPEN, M.D. 1805. 

ADAM KUHN, M.D. 1809. 

THOMAS PARKE, M.D. 1818. 

THOMAS C. JAMES, M.D.* 1835. 

THOMAS T. HEWSON, M.D. 1835. 

GEORGE B. WOOD, M.D. 1848. 

W. S. W. RUSCHENBERGER, M.D. 1879. 

ALFRED STILLE, M.D. 1882. 

SAMUEL LEWIS, M.D.f 1884. 

J. M. Da COSTA, M.D. 1884. 

S. WEIR MITCHELL, M.D. 1886. 



* Died four months after his election, 
t Resigned on account of ill health. 



05 



OFFIOEES AND STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE 
COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS, 1886. 



Councillors, 



President, S. Weir Mitchell, M.D. 

Vice-President, John H. Packard, M.D. 
Censors /Drs. Lewis Rodman, William Goodell, Alfred 

' i Stills and Samuel Lewis. 
Secretary, Isaac Norms, Jr., M.D. 

Ti-easurcr, Charles Stewart Wurts, M.D. 

Honorary Librarian, James H. Hutchinson, M.D. 
Recorder, J. Ewing Mears, M.D. 

To serve 3 years, Drs. R. A. Cleemann 

and William Thomson. 
" " 2 years, Drs. I. Minis Hays and 

A. V. Meigs. 
" " 1 year, Drs. S. W. Gross and 
James C. Wilson. 

Committee of Publication. 
Drs. James H. Hutchinson, Robert P. Harris, A. V. Meigs, and the 
Recorder, ex officio. 

Library Committee. 
Drs. L Minis Hays, 8. W. Gross, Morris Longstreth, 
George C. Harlan, and William Osler. 

Committee on Mutter Museum. 
Drs. William Hunt, John H. Brinton, and Morris Longstreth. 

Hall Committee. 

Drs. H. Y. Evans, T. Hewson Bache, J. Ewing Mears, Morris J. Lewis, 
and W. Barton Hopkins. 

Committee on Directory for Nurses. 
Drs. W. W. Keen, Wharton SiNKLER, and James C. Wilson. 

Committee on Finance. 
Drs. W. S. W. Ruschenberger, Caspar Wister, John Ashhurst, Jr., 
and the President and Treasurer, ex officio. 

William F. Jenks Prize Committee. 
Drs. Ellwood Wilson, Robert P. Harris, and Theophilus Parvin. 

Committee on Entertainments. 
Drs. J. Ewing Mears, R. J. Dunglison, R. A. Cleemann, Louis Starr, 
and the President, ex officio. 



66 



FELLOWS, ASSOCIATE FELLOWS, AND 
CORRESPONDING MEMBERS 

OF THE 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF PHILADELPHIA. 



* Denotes deceased Fellows, 
t Resignation of Fellowship. 
|| Forfeiture of Fellowship. 
(N. R.) Non-resident Fellows. 



FELLOWS, 



* John Redman 

* John Jones . 

* John Morgan 

* Wm. Shippen, Jr. 

* Adam Kuhn 
t Benjamin Rush . 

* Gerardus Clarkson 

* Samuel Duffield . 

* Thomas Parke . 

* James Hutchinson 

* George Glentworth 

* Abraham Chovet 

* Andrew Ross 

* William W. Smith 

* James Hall 
t William Clarkson 

* William Currie . 

* Benjamin Say 

* Samuel Powel Griffitts 

* Benjamin Duffield 
|| John Morris 

* John Carson 



07 



* John Foulke 

|| Robert Harris 

* .Nathan Dorsey . 

* John R. B. Rodgers . 

* Caspar Wistar, Jr. 

* James Cunningham . 

* Charles Moore 

* Michael Leib 

* John H. Gibbons 

* Nicholas B. Waters . 

* Benjamin Smith Barton 

* Thomas Redman 

* William Mcllvaine 

* Plunket F. Gleutworth 

* Hugh Hodge 

|| Charles Caldwell 

* John dimming . 

* Thomas C. James 

* William Annan . 
t Adam Seybert 

* William Boys 

* Lewis J. Jardine 

* Joseph P. Minnick 

* Thomas T. Hewson . 

* Nathaniel Chapman . 

* Jos. Parrish 

* Henry Neill 

* Samuel Stewart . 

* Joseph Woollens 

* Isaac Cleaver 

|| William P. C. Barton 
t Edwin A. Atlee . 

* John M. Moore . 

* Samuel C. Hopkins 

f John Wilson Moore . 

* Samuel Emlen . 

* John C. Otto 

* Elijah Griffiths . 

* John Ruan . 

* Joseph Hartshorn e 

* Henry Bond 



ELECTED. 

Jan. 1787 

(i it 

April, " 

U tt 

it tt 

tt (I 

If tt 

March, 1788 

<< << 

April, 1789 

" 1790 

July, 1791 
Nov. 

Sept. 1792 
Dec. 

July, 1795 

Oct. " 

<< << 

June, 179G 

Nov. 1797 

" 1798 

July, 1800 

Aug. 1801 

Dec. " 

Nov. 1807 



1X10 



June, 


1811 


July, 

ft 


1814 
(« 


Feb. 


1815 


June, 


ti 


July, 


it 


Aug. 


a 




1817 


Dec. 


ti 


Aug. 


1818 


March, 


1819 


April, 


1821 




1823 


Dec. 


1824 


July, 


1825 



68 



ELECTED. 



* Robert M. Huston 


. Sept. 


1826 


* John Bell 


. Feb. 


1827 






ii 




u 


u 




<< 


ii 




<( 


<i 




. May, 


ii 


* John K. Mitchell 




ii 






1828 




<< 




* William Darrach 


. May, 


« 


* William S. Coxe .... 




1829 






" 






1830 






1831 






1832 


|| Edward Y. Howell . 




ii 


* Theophilus E. Beesley 


. Oct. 


ii 






1833 


* Caspar W. Pennock . 


. . Sept. 


1834 


* William W. Gerhard . 


<( 


ii 






183.5 


William Ashmead 


ii 


' 




. Feb. 


ii 






ii 




(< 


ii 






ii 


* John Rodman Paul 


. Feb. 


1836 






<i 


* D. Francis Condie 




« 




(I 


u 


* Thomas D. Mutter 


(I 


14 




<< 


« 






1837 






it 


* Anthony Bournonville 




ii 


W. S. W. Ruschenberger . 




1838 


t Samuel Jackson . 






* Robley Dunglison 




«i 


* Jacob Randolph . 




ii 


* Joseph Carson , 


< • . " 


(i 



69 



* Joseph Warrington 

* James H. Bradford 

* Thomas S. Kirkbride 

* George W. Norris 

* Francis West 
t Benjamin D. Neill 
|| Rush Vandyke . 

* Edward Peace 

* Frederick Turnpenny 

* George McClellan 

* William D. Brinckle 

* William Pepper . 

* Edward Ha Howell 

* Samuel Colhoun . 

* William H. Clapp 

* Caspar Morris 

* Carter N. Berkeley 

* Joseph Peace 
William S. Zantzinger (N". 

* David C. Skerrett 
|| W. Poyntell Johnson 
t Henry H. Smith . 

* Charles Evans 
t Caspar Wistar 

* Gotthilf Moehring 

* Robert Bridges . 
Meredith Clymer (1ST. R.) 
John D. Griscom 

* Thomas Dillard . 

* Paul Beck Goddard 
Alfred Stille 
John J. Reese 

* John Forsyth Meigs 
t John Wiltbank . 

* Henry S. Patterson 
Lewis Rodman . 

* George L. Newbold 

* William Byrd Page 
Charles R. King (N. R.) 

* David II. Tucker 

* T. R. Brinckle . 



ELECTED. 

Jan. 1839 



Feb. 



March, 
<« 

May, 



Aug. 
<( 


n 


Sept. 


a 


June, 


1840 


yjci. 


ti 


Nov. 


n 


Dec. 


a 






Jan. 


1842 


April, 


<< 


<< 


<« 


June, 


ii 


July, 


ii 
ii 


Aug. 




Nov. 


i< 


Nov. 


1842 


Dec. 
<( 


ii 

ii 


June, 

<< 


1843 


Aug. 


ii 


Nov. 

n 


1 1 


Dec. 


a 


ii 


1844 
it 


Jan. 


1845 



70 



ELECTED. 







1 8 1 5 


* Francis G. Smith, Jr 


. May, 


* 






it 






n 






1846 














-Y- TlTrt*™! /"I CI, -,11 






.v. ~\\t : 1 1 • „„ t> / 1 j_ 






-v. T , . 1 , . . ~ nr n».. ii 














. Aug. 


















. Feh. 


1847 














w More ton fetme ..... 


. Dec. 








1848 














* SamuelJackson (Prof.) 


. Nov. 




Samuel Lewis . 


. Feb. 


1849 


Justus Dunott (N. R.) 






















1849 


John L. Ludlow 






* John H. B. McClellan . . . . 


. July, 








* D. Paul Lai us 




u 








* William B. Wilson . 














<< 


it 


t Richard H. Townsend . 




1850 


* Isaac Remington .... 




ii 


* John B. Tuft 




i< 


Edward H. Mayer (N. R.) . 


. Oct. 


it 


William R, Bullock (N. R.) 


. Jan. 


1851 


* John B. Biddle .... 


it 


ii 



71 



* Kobert P. Thomas 

* Henry E. Drayton 

* Bernard Henry 
t James J. Levick 

Joseph Leidy . 

* Wilson Jewell 
Ellwood Wilson 
Henry Hartshorne 

t William Keller 

* William Mayburry 
Alfred L. Kennedy 

* Ellerslie Wallace . 

* Thomas H. Yardley 
Fitz William Sargent (N. R.) 
Thomas Hewson Bache 

* James V. Emlen . 

* Joseph Hopkinson 
Owen Jones Wister 

* William H. Hooper 
|| Henry Tiedemann 

* Jonathan M. Allen 
James L. Tyson (N". R.; 

t James E. Rhoads . 
Addinell Hewson . 

* David Gilbert 
f B. Howard Rand . 

W. P. Tilden (K R.) 

* G. Hermann Robinett 
William Hunt 
R. A. F. Penrose . 

* Richard Clements . 
William H. Gobrecht (N. R 
Joseph Parrish (N. R.) 

* William D. Stroud 
Nathan L. Hatfield 
Francis W. Lewis . 
S. Weir Mitchell . 
R. K. Smith (N. R.) 

* William IST. Johnson 
J. Cheston Morris . 

* James Aitken Meigs 



72 



John H. Brinton . 

* Alfred M. Slocum . 

* Alfred Green . 

* Samuel D. Gross 
Walter F. Atlee 

* Robert E. Rogers . 
Tobias G. Richardson (N. R 

* James M. Corse 
John H. Packard . 
J. M. Da Costa 

t S. Henry Dickson . 

D. Hayes Agnew . 

James Darrach 

William A. Hammond (N. 1 

Charles S. Boker . 
t William Hembel Taggart 

* A. Owen Stille 

* Augustine H. Fish 
Henry D. Benner . 
William R. Dunton 
Charles Stewart Wurts 
Thos. G. Morton . 
William S. Forbes . 

* C. Pendleton Tutt 
Robert P. Harris . 

* John F. Lamb 
James H. Hutchinson 

* Edward A. Page . 
A. Douglass Hall . 
Lewis D. Harlow . 

* H. Lenox Hodge . 

* Albert H. Smith . 

* W. Lehman Wells 

* David Burpee 
Richard J. Dunglison 
George R. Morehouse 

|| W. Kent Gilbert . 

* J. Hamilton Slack 
John Ashhurst, Jr. 
A. K. Smith, U. S. A. (N. R 
Edward A. Spooner 



ELECTED. 

Oct. 1856 
Jan. 1857 



April, " 



Oct. 

July, 1858 
Oct. 

Jan. 1859 

t( << 

April, " 

July, " 



April, 1860 

ti it 

Oct. 1860 

July, 1861 

April, 1862 



Jan. 



April, 



July, 



Oct. 

Jan. 1864 



73 



Albert Fricke 
William H. Granger 
William H. Pancoast 

* William M. King, U. S. N. 

* J. M Leedom 
R. X. Downs 
E. L. Duer 

S. P. Jones (X. R.) 
Winthrop Sargent (X. R.) 

E. B. Vandyck 
f Hilborne West 

Edward A. Smith (X. R.) 

* Edward Livezey . 

F. H. Getchell 

* A. A. Henderson, U. S. X. 
I! Robert Boiling 

| John Le Conte 

William Moss 
■ Lewis Taylor, IT. S. A. 

Isaac I. Hayes (X. R.) 

George C. Harlan 

Horatio C. Wood, Jr. . 

Samuel Ashhurst . 

Isaac Xorris, Jr. 

George Hamilton . 

Andrew Xebinger 

C. Percy La Roche (N. R.) 

Edwin Scholfield . 

William F. Xorris 

J. J. Black (X. R.) 

F. F. Maury . 

Louis Fassitt 

R. B. Cruice . 

Thomas B. Reed . 

James Tyson 

William Darrach . 

I). F. Woods 

C. Schaffer . . . . 
Emil Fischer 

Chas. H. Boardman (X. R. ) 
Harrison Allen 
4 



KI.ECTEU. 

Jan. 1864 
April, 1864 

July, " 

<X't. 1864 
Jan. 1865 

April, " 

July, « 

Jan. 1866 
April, " 

Oct. 

Jan. 1867 



74 



W. W. Keen . 
H. Earnest Goodman . 
Charles H. Thomas 
R. R. Taylor 

* Edward Rhoads . 

* George Pepper 
|| Jacob Roberts 

Oliver A. Judson 
George II . Horn 
\ Horace Williams 

D. Murray Cheston 
William Goodell 
Samuel B. Howell 

|| James Cummiskey 
William Pepper . 

E. B. Shapleigh . 

* Isaac Ray 

* Ferdinand A. Hassler 

* Thaddeus L. Leavitt . 
Samuel W. Gross . 
Thomas J. Yarrow 

J. Ewing Mears 
Horace Y. Evans . 
T. Hollingsworth Andrews 
Jos G. Richardson 
William Thomson 

* Horace Binney Hare . 
Herbert Norris 

* John S. Parry 

* William S. Ilalsey 

* Frederic W. LeM is 

* William B. Corbitt 
Henry S. Schell 

* Henry R. Silliman 

* John C. Norris 
John M. Adler 

* Francis G. Smyth . 
C. H. Burnett 

L. J. Deal (N. R ) 
W. H. Ford . 
E. B. Gardette 



ELECTED. 

Jan. 1867 

April, " 
Oct. 

Jan. 1868 
April, 

July, " 
Oct. 

. Jan. I860 

. April, " 

. July, " 
. Jan. 1870 



April, 
July, 



75 



* R. M. Townsend, . 

A. Paul Turner (N. R.) 
M. J. Grier 
L. A. Dull l ino 
J. A. McFerran 

* Charles T. Hunter 
James V. Ingham . 
Thomas Wistar 

J. Solis Cohen 
John II. Grove 

* Lucius S. Bolles 

* W. F. Jenks . 

Thos. R. Dunglisou (N 
George Strawbridge 

* R. M. Bertolet 
Elliott Richardson 

* Wm. Ashbridge 
R. A. Cleemann 
W. H. Finn 
I. Minis Hays 
A. G. B. Hinkle 
Wm. G. Porter 
Wharton Sinkler 
Oscar H. Allis 
H. F. Baxter . 
Leonardo S. Clark 
W. R. Cruice . 
George S. Gerhard 
James Simpson 

| Richard Thomas 
[| W. H. Wallace 

Arthur Van Harlingen 
II A. C. W. Beecher 

A. C. Deakyne 

J. C. Wilson . 

W. H. Bennett 

Wm. H. Webb 

Louis Starr 

Theodore F. Seyfert 

Arthur V. Meigs 

* R. Burns 



R.) 



ELECTED. 

July. 1870 

ti f < 

Oct. 

Jan. 1871 



April, " 

it 

April. 1871 
Julv. 



Oct. 

Jan. 1872 



April. " 
" 1873 



Oct. 

Jan. 1874 



April. 
Jan. L875 
April. " 



Oct. 



76 



Joseph J. Kirkbride 

(George McClellan . 

R. II . Alison . 

L. K. Baldwin 

Edward Shippen, U. S. X. 

Morris J. Lewis 

E. O. Shakespeare 

Morris Longstreth 

John M. Keating . 

Theodore C. Wormley 

Jesse Williamson (N. R.) 
|| Robert J. Hess 

J. William White . 

Edward T. Bruen . 

John B. Roberts . 

Washington H. Baker 

Wm. Barton Hopkins 
| W. Penn Buck 

Roberts Bartholow 

De Forest Willard 

H. €. Chapman 

Frank Woodbury 

J. Henry C. Simes 

J. T. Esk ridge 

Chas. W. Dulles . 

Chas. K. Mills 

Hush Shippen Huidekoper 

* Frank C. Hand 
H. Augustus Wilson 
Richard Ashbridge. U. S. X 

* Frederick C. Sheppard 
A. Sydney Roberts 
Joseph Hearn 
Joseph F. Edwards 
Edward E. Montgomer 
Daniel E. Hughes (N. R.) 
William II. Parish 
John H. Musser 
N. Archer Randolph 
Charles Baum 
J. P. Crozer Griffith 



ELECTED. 

Oct. 187". 



(X 



R.) 



77 



George A. Piersol . 
Charles Ilarrod Vinton 
Ferdinand H. Gross 
William M. Welch . 
Henry Morris . 
Benjamin F. Baer . 
Griffith E. Abbot . 
Oliver P. Rex . 
Milton B. Musser 
Henry Beates . 
Henry Leffmann 
Alfred Whelen 
Theophilus Parvin 
H. W. Stel wagon . 
Robert Meade Smith 
John C. Da Costa . 
Francis M. Perkins 
Charles A. Oliver . 
S. S. Stryker . 
Roland G. Curtin . 
J. W. O'Neill 
Thomas H. Fenton 
Thomas Biddle 
Tliomas Hewson Bradford 
J. Gibbons Hunt 
H. F. Formad 
Henry M. Fisher 
Charles Wirgnaan 
Phineas T. Horwitz 
Frederick P. Henry 
(Jiarles Shaff ner 
Tliomas M. Drysdale . 
Hany Godey 
Alexander W. Biddle 
H. R. Wharton 
Houston Mifflin (\. R.) 
Francis Dercum 
William Osier 
John W. Mallet (N. R.) 
James B. Walker 
Robert M. Girvin 



May. 1883 

June, " 
Oct. 

Dec. 

Jan. 1884 
Feb. 

April, " 
May, 

June. " 

Oct. 
Dec. 

Jan. 1885 
Feb. 

March. • 



7s 



Joseph M. Fox 
Phi ip Leidy . 
Richard H. Harte 
Edward T. Reichert . 
Thomas J. Mays . 
Leonardo Da Vine: Judd 
John B. Chapin 
John Graham 
Edward Jackson 
James W. Holland 
Thomas C. Potter 
Joseph S. Neff 
Howard F. Hansel! 
Louis Jurist . 
Edward W. Watson 
Charles E. Cadwalader 
Caspar Morris 
John Madison Taylor 



ASSOCIATE FELLOW8. 
AMERICAN. 

* Nicholas Way, Wilmington, Del. 

* James Tilton, Dover, Del. 

* Isaac Senter, Newport, R. I. 

* David Hosack, New York 

* Samuel Bard, New York . 

* Jacob Bigelow. Boston, Mass. . 

* Daniel Drake, Cincinnati, O. 

* Reuben D. Mussey, Cincinnati. 0. 

* John Revere, New York . 

* George Cheyne Shattuck, Boston. Mass. 

* Theodoric R. Beck, Albany. N. Y. 

* Frederick S. Eckard . 

* Peter Parker, Washington. D. C. 

* Benjamin W. Dudley, Lexington. Ky. 

* Nathan R. Smith. Baltimore. Md. 

* John Hubbard, Hallowell, Me. 

* Thomas Bewail, Washington, D. C. 

* John Ware, Boston, Mass. 

* Amos Twitchell, Keene, N. fT. 

* N. D. Benedict, Florida 



ELECTED. 

May, 1885 



Oct. 
Nov. - 
Dec. 

Jan. 1886 
Feb. 

March, '' 



May, 
June, 



ECTED, 

L790 



1800 
1811 
1821 
1830 
1835 
1836 
183'J 

1840 
1842 



1843 
1845 



79 



John C. Warren, Boston, Mass. 
Richard D. Arnold, Savannah, Ga. . 
Thomas Stewardson, Savannah, Ga. 
John L. Atlee, Lancaster, Pa. 
Jonathan Knight, New Haven, Conn. . 
Alexander H. Stevens, New York . 
James MeNaughton. Albany, N. Y. 
Beverly R. Welford, Fredericksburg, Va 
Henry Miller, Louisville, Ky. . 
Austin Flint, Sr., New York 
Frank H. Hamilton, New York 
Wilmer Worthington, Westchester, Pa. . 
Henry I. Bowditch, Boston, Jlass. . 
Henry J. Bigelow, Boston, Mass. . 
J. B. S. Jackson. Boston, Mass. 
Alonzo Clark, New York . . . . 
Willard Parker, New York 
Fordyce Barker, New York 

E. M. Moore, Rochester, N. Y. 

F. Donaldson, Baltimore, Md. . 
Christopher Johnston, Baltimore, Md. 
John S. Billings, U. S. A.. Washingt n, I 
N. S. Davis. Chicago, RL 

C. G. Comegys, Cincinnati, O. . 
W. O. Baldwin, Montgomery, Ala. . 
John T. Hod gen, St. Louis, Mo. 
R. A. Kinloch, Charleston, S. C. 
F. Peyre Porcher, Charleston, S. C. 
Joseph Jones, New Orleans, La. 

Traill Green, Easton, Pa 

A. M. Pollock, Pittsburg, Pa. . 

James King, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Hiram Corson, Norristown, Pa. 

R. B. Mowry, Allegheny City, Pa. . 

Stanford E. Clmillc, New 7 Orleans, La. . 

William H. Byford, Chicago, 111. 

FOREIGN. 
Peter Renaudet, Bristol, England . 
William Patterson, Londonderry, Ireland 
John Coakley Lettsom, London, England 
P. Ch. A. Louis, Paris, France 
Jonathan P-reira, London, England 



80 



Sir Robert Christison, Edinburgh, Scotland 
Archibald Hall, Canada .... 
Fleetwood Churchill, Dublin, Ireland 
John M. Lever, London, England . 
E. Gintrac, Bordeaux, France . 
Gaetano Valery, Florence, Italy 
! Hermann Walther, Dresden, Saxony 
Pedro Gonzales Velasco, Madrid, Spain 
K. G. H. Butcher, Dublin, Ireland . 
G. H. B. Macleod, Edinburgh, Scotland . 
Th. de Valcourt, Cannes, France 

* P. F. Da Costa Alvarenga, Lisbon, Portugal 

* W. Boeck, Christiania, Norway 
Sir Henry YV. Acland, Oxford, England . 
John W. Ogle, London, England 

* Thomas B. Peacock, London, England . 
Sir James Paget, Bart., London, England 
.). Hughlings Jackson, London, England 
George Johnson, London, England . 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Edinburgh, Scotland 
Robert Barnes, London, England . 
J. Milner Fothergill, London, England . 

* Amedee Courty, Montpellier, France 
Christopher Heath, London, England 
Sir Joseph Fayrer, London, England 

C ORRESP N D 1 N G M E M B E R S 

Adolphe Waaseige, Liege, Belgium 
Fleniming Carrow, Canton, China . 
Domenico Chiara, Milan, Italy . 
Jean Rendu, Lyons, France 
Kannv Loll Dey, Calcutta, India 



NOTE. — In the four issues, preceding the last three of the 
Charter, Ordinances, and By-laws, an appendix was added, con- 
taining the. articles of agreement between the College and the 
late Dr. Thomas D. Mutter, as well as "extracts from the exem- 
plification of Deed of Thomas D. Mutter < t ux. to the Pennsyl- 
vania Cotupam for Insurances on Lives and Granting Annuities. 
In trust." 

This matter is now printed in a separate form, and can be ob- 
tained by application to the Secretary or Librarian of the College. 



NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE NATIONA 

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